Panna like all Gemstones, is valued according to its Color, Cut, Clarity and Crystal. Emerald is the grass-green type of Beryl.
Normally, in the grading of Gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion. However, in the grading of Panna, crystal is considered a close second. Both are necessary conditions. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure vibrant green hue, but also a high degree of transparency to be considered a top Gemstone.
The Swat pannas show light red to red through the Chelsea color filter and completely absorb short-wave ultra-violet radiation.
This gives the rock its Gemlike green color. Varying amount of iron also alters the color of the rock. It has a hardness of 7.5-8 and a refractive index of 1.57-1.59. However, it is not a Panna Gemstone recommended for 'everyday' rough use since it falls in the category of soft stone.
The cut of the stone is also significant. Emerald can have round, pear, oval shapes and the famous Panna cut i.e., Octagonal Cut is most preferred. Inclusions are almost an accepted fact in pannas. A skillful gem cutter is able to hide the inclusions while cutting a Gemstone and bring out its colour and glitter.
Color is divided into three components: Hue, Saturation and Tone. The hue must be bright. Gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in Panna. A grayish green hue is a dull green.
Brazil has been supplying Pannas to the world market since the 1980s. Typical Brazilian pannas are Lighter and Yellowish. Pannas from Zimbabwe are smaller is size and lighter in shade. However the term 'African panna' is a misnomer. It simply denotes Green Fluorite.
The only other stones of approximately an Panna Green that show a chromium spectrum at all resembling that of emerald are green Jadeite and Chalcedony stained with a chromium salt. In none of these is the doublet in the deep red nearly so sharp a colour as in Panna is visible.
Property of Panna, the refractive indices and SG vary perceptibly according to the locality where it is mined, due to variations in chemical composition. The inclusions, also, are often distinctive for each locality, and Gemologists will do well to familiarize themselves with these things if they wish to distinguish between the Pannas of one mine from another.
Dark Green Panns have recently emanated from Pakistan, and these contain rather indeterminate inclusions, along which flakes of mika and small crystals of phenakite and dolomite could be recognized.
Pannas from the Ural mountains Siberian or Russian pannas have quite a different occurrence, and this is reflected in their inclusion. Flakes of mica may be seen often broken, but the most distinctive features are blades of green actinolite cracks across. Siberian Pannas is a development of thin, disc like cavities parallel to the basal plane. These show a silvery luster by reflected light, but in some directions may appear black, due total reflection.
This Gemstone of Lord Ganesha is the favored Gem of the people seeking intellectual powers as well as for those seeking wealth. This calms down the nervous system and improves the capacity to take right, calculated decisions. It improves the liquidity and money flow in business and blesses the wearer with cash, jewels, fixed deposits etc. Invariably wealthy people are seen possessing a lot of Pannas of different sizes and mines.